ICCN 2018, Washington, May 1st: Half day course in SFEMG, Sanders & Stålberg
CNE Reference values published
Reference values for jitter measured with concentric needle electrodes from the multicenter
study are published in Muscle & Nerve: Stålberg, E., et al. (2016). "Reference values for jitter recorded
by concentric needle electrodes in healthy controls: A multicenter study." Muscle & Nerve 53(3): 351-362.
Introduction: The aim of this study was to create reference values for jitter measured with concentric
Methods: Operators worldwide contributed recordings from orbicularis oculi (OO),
frontalis (FR), and extensor digitorum (ED) muscles in healthy controls. Criteria for acceptable signal quality
were agreed upon in advance. Fifteen or 20 recordings of acceptable quality from each muscle were
required for voluntary and electrical stimulation recordings, respectively.
Results: Recordings from 59 to 92 subjects were obtained for each muscle and activation type. Outlier limits
for mean consecutive difference and individual jitter data for voluntary activation were: OO, 31 and 45 µs;
FR, 28 and 38 µs; ED, 30 and 43 µs; and for electrical stimulation they were: OO, 27 and 36 µs; FR, 21 and
28 µs; ED, 24 and 35 µs.
Conclusion: Reference jitter values from concentric needle electrode recordings were developed from
signals of defined quality while seeking to avoid creating supernormal values.
Donation to Jože Trontelj Institute for Ethics and Values
Visit the Institute of Ethics and Values (IEV)
Read the report from the Institute For Ethics
See Memorial for Joze
SFEMG Online Videos available
An extensive series of instructional videos on all aspects of the SFEMG technique is available online here.
They can also be found on YouTube: Search for "SFEMG" or click
The 3rd edition of the SFEMG book can be purchased from AANEM.
See info to the left.